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Close Error. The identification of patterns and processes is directly related to the spatial and temporal scales of the study in which large scales deal with evolutionary factors, whereas medium to smaller scales deal with ecological factors Wiens , Huston , Tokeshi , Willis and Whittaker An analysis of diversity patterns and processes can be done only through the comparison of appropriate taxonomic e.
A promising, but difficult, approach to describing patterns and processes of biological diversity is to study a speciose and ecologically important taxon with a wide distribution; bats are an ideal taxonomic group with which to take such an approach Kalko New World bats are the most diverse mammals in terms of number of species Wilson , Findley and feeding habits Janzen and Wilson , Kalko in tropical communities.
They play important roles as pollinators, 29 30 seed dispersers, and predators of invertebrates and small vertebrates Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Findley , Kalko and occupy many forest types Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Fleming , Willig and Mares Therefore, the identification of ecological patterns in bat communities and factors influencing their diversity is important for the understanding and conservation of tropical forest ecosystems.
Currently, our knowledge of patterns and processes in bat communities is poor. This is due in part to the lack of standardized, long-term comparative studies, and behavioral and ecological data at the species level Fleming a, Willig , Findley , Kalko , , Stevens and Willig These sampling biases may limit the ability of these studies to detect evolutionary, biogeographic, or ecological patterns.
None of these studies e. Considering the role of the forest canopy in plant and animal ecology is necessary when estimating species diversity and the mechanisms that underlie it Lowman and Nadkarni , DeVries et al.
I examine ecological characteristics of species that correlate with distribution and abundance within and between sites and among seasons.
This long-term study is the first in Panamd to examine the bat diversity outside of the Canal Area in Panami and to sample canopy bats in a mid-elevation Neotropical cloud forest.
Finally, I compare lowland and midelevation sites from Panami, Central America, and South America, and discuss whether patterns previously observed in bat community studies are observed at the two Panamanian bat communities I studied.
The lowland site was Cerro Batipa 8' 20' The site lies in a tropical moist forest life zone Tosi and has a tropical climate with a prolonged dry season McKay , modified from De Martonne The mean annual ambient temperature is The vegetation covers ha of tropical evergreen, semi-deciduous, and drought-deciduous forests Chapter 2, Valdespino and Santamaria , Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg The forest has a gradient in disturbance conditions, from mature closed canopy to highly disturbed open canopy forest patches.
Some forest edges border teak Tectona grandis 32 plantations or mangroves. The forest has a canopy height of 30 m and emergent trees of 40 m, with a closed canopy and relatively open understory Chapter 2.
The vegetation is described in detail in Valdespino and Santamaria The reserve ranges in elevation from to m Diaz , but the study site spans an elevation range of m.
Fortuna has two life zones Tosi , Dfaz , premontane wet forest and lower wet mountain forest. It shows a montane oceanic climate McKay based on De Martonne , with mean annual ambient temperature of The reserve comprises 19, ha of continuous lower mountain rainforest Cavelier , Diaz , and is classified as a tropical ombrophilous cloud forest Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg A detailed description of the vegetation at Fortuna is found in Mayo et al.
Ten sampling stations were established in the lowland forest and seven in the cloud forest. Pairs of mist nets were separated by m.
Nets were set in the canopy using a system of ropes and plastic rings. Nets were usually opened from sunset h to midnight h and checked every min.
Only adult and subadult bats were marked. The first year of the study I used a combination of colored beads on plastic necklaces Medellin et al.
The use of mist nets to study bat or avian ecology has advantages and disadvantages that have discussed in detail by several authors LaVal , Fleming et al.
This permitted high-flying insectivorous bats that are not commonly captured with mist-nets, to be identified and included in analyses Kalko et al.
By combining understory and canopy mist netting with acoustic monitoring it is possible to inventory almost the entire bat community at one site Kalko et al.
Bat Diversity Analysis Diversity parameters were calculated for both sites and compared between habitat lowland forest and cloud forest , height understory and canopy , and time year and season.
The temporal factors comprise the years to and the following seasons: dry January-April , early rainy May-August , and late rainy SeptemberDecember.
The species accumulation curves, which plot the cumulative number of species discovered within a defined area as a function of the effort expended netting nights Colwell and Coddington , Moreno and Halffter , give a preliminary estimate of species abundance.
It is expected that the most abundant species are the first to be captured. Rarefaction analyses were used to compare species richness between forests and between strata Colwell Rarefaction diversity measurements provide control for sampling differences by calculating species richness scaling all collections to the same sample size Hulbert , Heck et al.
Species abundance number of individuals per species distribution was analyzed first as the species abundance frequency distribution, in which the number of species were plotted against the log2 of abundance Preston , Magurran , Hubbell To describe species abundance patterns within communities, I assigned bats to an abundance category based on first captures of adults and subadults.
The abundance categories are super-abundant, abundant, common, uncommon, and rare. Although the position of the cut-off points is arbitrary, this is a simple comparative method, in which it ranked species' abundances and established a proportion of species within an abundance category.
I used Fager's "number of moves per specimen" NMS , which performed best in a recent evaluation Hubal6k , and Shannon-Wiener information index H' , which is the most widely used measure of species diversity Magurran , Hubaldk and therefore facilitates comparisons with other studies, to calculate species diversity.
Fager's number and Shannon-Wiener index have maximum values of diversity around 1. To obtain a measurement of a species' proportional abundance in a sample, I calculated Shannon's evenness index E Magurran The evenness index is constrained between 0 and 1.
Community similarity or beta 0 diversity was calculated with two measures: Sorensen index Ci and Sorensen quantitative index CN.
The former measures only species presence-absence taxonomy and takes no account of the abundance of species, whereas the other measures both species presence-absence and abundance function Magurran 36 All equations used to calculate the x-, P-, and similarity indexes can be found in Magurran and Krebs When the distribution of data was not normal I used the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance Shapiro and Wilk , or when the means had unequal variance I used the Welch ANOVA Sall and Lehman to test for seasonal differences in species richness and abundance.
Mean relative abundance of species was estimated from 3 years of data as the number of monthly individuals captured per mist netting effort for total, seasonal, and strata.
All other statistical tests are identified in the text. Bat Guilds Analysis To compare bat guilds, I first assigned each bat to a guild using the 10 categories proposed by Kalko et al.
Based on the original guild concept of Root , each guild is composed of species that forage in similar habitats, in similar ways, for similar foods.
Kalko et al. They defined habitat with respect to the proximity of a bat to obstacles or clutter. Bats foraging modes were classified as "gleaning" for species that take food from a surface, or "aerial" for those that capture it in the air.
Bonaccorso added a vertical stratification component to the classification of bat guilds. Food habit classification 37 refers to the main food consumed by a species.
I obtained diet data from the literature Fleming et al. To compare the composition and structure of bat communities I constructed two niche matrices based on the feeding guilds as used by Kalko et al.
The first niche matrix described species richness by cell occupancy, whereas the second niche matrix described species identity and ecological characteristics abundance and strata use.
Body mass values were obtained from bats I caught and from the literature Fleming et al. Body size categories follow Kalko et al.
Other studies LaVal and Fitch , Smith and Genoways , Willig have used forearm length as a measure of size because it is more commonly and accurately recorded than body mass.
However, LaVal and Fitch and Lim and Engstrom have expressed reservations about the use of forearm length. Body mass represents better the ecological impact per individual in terms of resource consumption Lim and Engstrom To describe species abundance patterns within guilds, I assigned bats to an abundance category based on the first capture of their members recaptures excluded.
Because some species were not captured frequently enough to allow a statistical analysis, I used the percentage of captures within species by strata to describe species strata use.
Bats were arbitrarily classified into three categories of forest strata use based on the number of total captures in canopy-level nets, expressed as percentage of total captures.
The "both strata" category may include understory bats that frequently use the canopy or canopy bats that frequently use the understory.
Results Species and Taxonomic Richness Mist nets were open for mist net hours mnh during nights lowlands mnh during nights, cloud forest mnh during nights.
Acoustic monitoring was done for 72 hrs during 12 nights at each site MUller With the combined methods of mist-netting and acoustic inventory, and the inclusion of species from previous inventories in the cloud forest of Fortuna Adames , Olmos , I recorded at the regional scale a total of 73 species, 43 genera, and seven families Table , Appendix B.
Phyllostomidae dominated both lowland forest 30 of 51 spp. The family Vespertilionidae followed in species richness at both lowland 7 spp.
Emballonuridae was rich in species in the lowlands 7 spp. The other families were poor in representation in both forests. Within the Phyllostomidae family, the subfamily Stenodermatinae dominated at both lowland forest 12 spp.
Species and taxonomic richness, and taxonomic ratios of bats recorded in the lowland forest of Batipa and in the cloud forest of Fortuna partitioned by spatial scale and method.
For bats recorded with mist nets, species accumulation curves showed that the cloud forest accumulated species faster than the lowland forest during the first 20 netting nights.
Thereafter, more species were captured in the lowlands until both curves reached similar species richness Figure Rarefaction analysis showed that close to captures would have been required to accumulate 34 and 33 species in the lowland forest and in the cloud forest, respectively.
My actual sampling accumulated 35 species with bats and 34 species with bats in the lowland forest and in the cloud forest, respectively.
Both bat communities were numerically dominated by a few abundant and many less abundant species Table , Figures , , Appendix B.
The six most abundant 40 species in the lowland forest Artibeus jamaicensis, C. The six most abundant species A. The superabundant A. The number of understory and canopy species was similar in both forests Table For the lowlands, rarefaction analysis showed that close to captures would have been required to accumulate 30 and 31 species in the understory and in the canopy, respectively.
My actual sampling accumulated 31 species with bats and 33 species with bats in the understory and in the canopy, respectively. For the cloud forest, rarefaction analysis showed that close to bats would have been required to accumulate 26 and 23 species in the understory and in canopy, respectively.
My actual sampling accumulated 28 species with bats and 29 species with bats in the understory and in the canopy, respectively.
Abundance categories for bat communities of lowland forest Batipa and cloud forest Fortuna. Abundance range and number of species Category Lowland forest Species Cloud forest Species Rare 10 14 Uncommon 15 7 Common 5 6 Abundant 4 6 Superabundant 1 1 Total 35 34 41 Table Species richness of bats in lowland forest and cloud forest partitioned by species category and forest strata A.
Species categories: rare species are those represented by - 5 individuals, all other species are those represented by - 6 individuals, and restricted species are those species captured only in one strata level, understory or canopy.
Individual abundances of bat species in these two forests partitioned by forest strata B. I captured significantly more individuals in the canopy than in the understory in both forests G"'s - I found differences in the relative species abundance distribution between forests.
Species abundance distribution showed a high frequency of uncommon species in the 42 lowland forest and rare species in the cloud forest Table , Figure Species rank abundance distribution in the lowland forest showed the typical log normal distribution with one or two dominant species, whereas in the cloud forest several species were prominent Figure In the lowland forest, the rank-abundance patterns of understory and canopy samples are very similar to each other and to the total sample Figure However, they differ in the sequence of most abundant species.
Understory bats are dominated in decreasing order by A. In the cloud forest, the rank-abundance patterns of understory and canopy samples show similar distribution Figure Between cloud forest strata there is a difference in the sequence of most abundant species.
Understory species are represented in decreasing order by S. However, lowland forest showed lower species diversity than cloud forest using both two diversity indices H', NMS , with significant differences for Shannon's Index H': 2.
The cloud forest showed a more equal abundance distribution among species than the lowland forest E: 0. Measures of community diversity and evenness for total and by strata bat community in lowland forest and cloud forest for bats captured with mist nets.
Combining sampling methods, lowlands and cloud forest have 31 species in common Appendix B. Measures of community similarity for total and by strata bat community in a lowland forest and cloud forest based on data from combined mist netting and acoustic , mist netting, and acoustic monitoring methods.
The lowland bats had a more diverse understory than the canopy, but similar evenness Table and higher taxonomic than functional similarity between strata Table Species richness within insectivore and piscivore bat families in a lowland forest and cloud forest in Panam6.
Species richness of the bat family Phyllostomidae PHY and its subfamilies in a lowland forest and cloud forest in Panamd. Subfamilies are the insect-omnivorouscarnivorous Phyllostominae Phy , nectarivore Glossophaginae Glo , and frugivore Carollinae Ca and Stenodermatinae Ste.
Bat species accumulation curves from two forests in Panamd at different elevations during July Dec Curves show total number of species captured partitioned by lowland forest Batipa: 35 spp.
Arrows divide netting nights in year periods. Distribution of the relative species abundance for Panamanian bats in a cloud forest Fortuna and a lowland forest Batipa.
Relative abundance distributions are plotted by doubling classes of abundance log2 , following the method of Preston Dominance-diversity curves for bat species in two Panamanian forests at different elevations.
Log10 of species abundance partitioning by lowland forest Batipa: 35 species and cloud forest Fortuna: 34 species bat species rank. Sample size refers to total bat abundance.
Dominance-diversity curves for the bat community in lowland forest Batipa. Log10 of species abundance partitioned by total 35 species , canopy 33 species , and understory 29 species bat species rank.
Sample size refers to bat abundance for total community, canopy, and understory. Dominance-diversity curves for the bat community in a cloud forest Fortuna.
Log10 of species abundance partitioned by total 34 species , canopy 29 species , and understory 28 species bat species rank.
Forest strata in the cloud forest were more taxonomically C,: 0. Spatial and Temporal Bat Diversity Annual and seasonal temporal patterns of bat species richness and abundance were different between and within sites.
When partitioned among years the lowland and cloud forest showed similar trends in species richness and "single species", but not with respect for abundance and "unique species" Tables , Corrected values for annual mist netting effort.
Single species were species represented by one individual in a year, and unique species were species not captured in any other year.
Values for unique species were not corrected. Numbers in parentheses represent raw values. Monthly values of species richness, abundance, and rainfall showed high variation by year at both forests Figures , The partitioning among seasons showed differences in species richness and abundance patterns between forests or strata.
Also, I found significant differences Table Corrected values for annual mist netting effort- of bat abundance and species richness partitioned by year for the cloud forest.
Single species were species represented by one individual in a year, and unique species were species not captures in any other year. Temporal variation in the community of lowland bats from Batipa.
Each monthly point represents a 3-year mean with high and low values, except for June bat data which is a 2-year mean.
Variables are species richness A , individual abundance B , and rainfall C. Species richness and individual abundance are measured as monthly species and bats captured by net hour respectively.
Temporal variation in the community of cloud forest bats from Fortuna. Each monthly point represents a 3-year mean, except for June bat data which is a 2-year mean.
Variables are for total, understory, and canopy species richness A and individual abundance B measured as monthly species and bats captured by net hour, respectively.
Late Rainy 1. Variables are for total, understory, and canopy species richness A and individual abundance B measured as monthly species and bats captured by net hour respectively.
A Dry 0. Two of the three missing guilds in the cloud forest, the 'highly cluttered space gleaning omnivore' and the 'highly cluttered space gleaning carnivore', are represented in the lowlands by members of the subfamily Phyllostominae with 3 and 1 species, respectively.
The third missing guild is the lowland 'highly cluttered space gleaning piscivore', represented by the family Noctilionidae 1 sp.
Tables , , Appendix B. The frugivore guild was dominant in number of species at both lowland 15 spp. Next was the gleaning insectivore with more species in the lowlands 7 spp.
The other guilds had low species richness at both forests Tables , The omnivore, carnivore, and piscivore guilds were only recorded in the lowlands see above.
Members of the family Phyllostomidae Carolliinae and Stenodermatinae comprise the guild of frugivore at both forests, whereas the background aerial insectivore consists of Vespertilionidae, Emballonuridae, and Mormoopidae at both forests with the addition of Noctilionidae and Thyropteridae in the lowlands and the cloud forest, respectively.
In both forests, the family Phyllostomidae comprises the members of the gleaning insectivores Phyllostominae as well as in the nectarivores Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae.
The uncluttered aerial insectivores were members of the families Molossidae and Emballonundae in the lowlands, but Molossidae only in the cloud forest, whereas the sanguivore of the Phyllostomidae Desmodontinae occurred at both forests.
The highly cluttered aerial insectivore was a member of the family Mormoopidae and the omnivore, carnivore, and piscivore guilds were described above for the lowlands Appendix B.
In decreasing order of species richness, the body mass ranges of g small and 10 g very small showed the highest values both in the lowland forest 20 and 17 spp.
These ranges included members of five and four guilds, respectively; each range is dominated by the 'background cluttered space aerial insectivore' and frugivore' guilds at both forests.
The range of g medium showed the highest number of guilds with six at both forests Tables , In the cloud forest the most occupied cells were g 'highly cluttered space gleaning frugivore' 12 spp.
Tables , Aerial insectivores represented most of the smallest bats 10 g in both forests. Within its body mass range, background cluttered aerial insectivore had more species and genera than any other aerial insectivore guild at both sites.
The genera Myotis, Saccopteryx, Peropteryx, and Eptesicus had more than one species in this guild. The uncluttered and highly cluttered aerial insectivores were dominated by the genera Molossus and Pteronotus, respectively, in both forests Tables , , Appendix B.
The guild of gleaning insectivores had more species in the smallest size class g and the genus Micronycteris dominates in number of species in both forest Tables , At the lowland forest, the three most frequent captured smallest species were segregated by strata use M.
The two similar abundant species of small size g were differentiated by strata, one was an understory bat M. The only species of medium size g was the most frequently captured gleaning insectivore, Tonatia silvicola an understory bat.
In the cloud forest, two species M. The 91 g class was represented by Phyllostomus hastatus a common omnivore canopy species. In the lowlands, the rare carnivorous species Chrotopterus auritus, represented the g class.
Sometimes Trachops is included within this guild or in the omnivorous guild, because of its frog-eating habits Tuttle and Ryan The piscivore guild was represented in the g class by Noctilio leporinus, which was observed only in the lowlands foraging over a pond near the forest.
The sanguivore guild was represented in both forests in the g class by Desmodus rotundus, a common understory species.
Niche matrix of guild-body mass for 51 species of bats recorded in lowland forest of Batipa, Chiriqui, Panami with a combined mist-netting and acoustic method.
The nectarivore guild in the cloud forest was more diverse in number of species and body mass classes. In the lowlands, the two smallest nectarivorous species 10 g were an abundant understory species Glossophaga soricina , and an uncommon bat, that 60 used both strata G.
The large size g nectarivorous canopy species, Phyllostomus discolor, sometimes is included in the omnivore guild. In the cloud forest, three of the four smallest species had no preference for strata but differed in abundance Hylonycteris underwoodi and Glossophaga spp.
The other two size classes were represented by two uncommon canopy species, L. The g class was represented only by one individual of P.
Niche matrix of guild-body mass for 52 species of bats recorded in cloud forest of Fortuna, Chiriquf, Panami with a combined mist netting and acoustic method.
The smallest 10 g species Vampyressa pusilla, Ectophylla macconnelli represented one of the less abundance size classes at both forests.
The g class had higher diversity of species 61 and genera among frugivore size classes at both sites.
Numerically dominant were three understory abundant-common Carollia spp. Other genera contain only one uncommon canopy species Uroderma bilobatum, Platyrrhinus helleri, and Vampyressa nymphaea.
Numerically dominant in the cloud forest were four small Artibeus spp. Next was Carollia with two of the three species that differed by strata and abundance and by Enchisthenes hartii, a common canopy species.
The other genera contain two uncommon canopy bats P. In the lowlands, the medium size g class included less abundant canopy bats, C.
In the cloud forest, two medium size abundant species differed by strata Sturnira spp. Both bat communities had only canopy species in the g and g class, and these species strongly and partially differed in abundance in the lowlands Artibeus spp.
Discussion By extending standardized understory and canopy sampling beyond the previous one-year single-community study Bonaccorso , Bonaccorso and Humphrey , 1 have firmly established that the diversity of bat communities varies spatially and temporally.
Hyvä vastausprosentti n. Kylän kehityssuunnitelma valottaa eri kehitysalueita. Tämän lisäksi kyselyssä ilmeni, että sulvalaiset arvostavat asuinympäristöään ja kokevat Vaasan läheisyyden positiivisena asiana.
Asukkaat haluavat säilyttää maaseututunnelman hyvän suunnittelun avulla ja tämän lisäksi he näkisivät uusia asuinalueita suunniteltavan mieluiten keskustan ulkopuolelle.
Niin ikään kunnallispalveluiden parantamistarve nousi kyselyssä esille. Raportti löytyy kylän kehityssuunnitelman liitteenä sekä verkkosivuilta www.
Tilaisuus houkutteli paikalle sekä sulvalaisia, että kunnan edustajia. Se myös nauhoitettiin Sulvan paikallistelevisiossa lähetettäväksi.
Myös 5. Christine Bonn och Tom Kecklund har medverkat som sakkunniga. Kjell Herberts kontaktades för att genomföra enkäten och deltog i flera arbetsmöten tillsammans med den utsedda arbetsgruppen.
Planen kommer att utgöra en viktig riktlinje för utvecklingsverksamheten i Solf. En byautvecklingsplan är dessutom ett verktyg för information och marknadsföring av Solf.
Vasabladetille ja Ylelle. Ennen projektin käynnistämistä, Sulvan kylätoimikunta asetti työryhmän, joka edustaa maantieteellisesti koko Sulvaa.
Christine Bonn ja Tom Kecklund osallistuvat työhön asiantuntijoina. Nimitetty työryhmä käynnisti työnsä helmikuussa päättämällä projektityöskentelyn suuntaviivoista.
Kjell Herbertsiin otettiin yhteyttä kyselyn toteuttamiseen liittyen, ja hän osallistui useampaan työryhmän kanssa pidettyyn kokoukseen.
Projektin keskeisimmät kohderyhmät ovat kylän asukkaat sekä paikalliset ja alueelliset poliitikot ja viranomaiset.
Kyläläisten ja yhdistysten mahdollisuus vaikuttaa kunnallispoliitikkoihin ja virkamiehiin Sulvaa koskevissa asioissa kasvaa ankkuroimalla kylän asukkaiden toivomukset osaksi kylän kehityssuunnitelmaa.
Suunnitelma tulee olemaan tärkeä suunnannäyttäjä Sulvan kehitystoiminnassa. Tämän lisäksi kylän kehityssuunnitelma toimii apuvälineenä Sulvan tiedotus- ja markkinointitoiminnassa.
Sulvan kylätoimikunta ry. Historia Västersolfista, Östersolfista, Munsmosta ja Riimalasta koostuva Sulvan kylä on vanha maanviljelyskylä, jossa perheviljelmät ja karjanhoito olivat yleisiä.
Rimal är den by i Solf som har den äldsta bosättningen. Sulvan kylistä vanhin asutus on Riimalassa. Todennäköisenä syynä tähän on, että kylä sijaitsee korkeimmalla paikalla; nykyään 20—40 metriä merenpinnan yläpuolella.
Arkeologiset siitepölynlöydökset osoittavat että Riimalan alueella on viljelty ohraa jo vuotta sitten. Lukuisat alueelta löytyneet muinaishaudat ovat lisätodisteita alueen muinaisista rakennuksista.
Riimalan kylän eteläpuolella sijaitsevat itäisen. Numera domineras jordbruket i Solf av växtodling. Det första kommunfullmäktigevalet hölls i Solf och dess första ordförande var Edvard Helenelund, sedermera riksdagsledamot.
Finnmossbackenin hiidenkiukaat ovat osa suurempaa hautakenttää, joka sijaitsee suuren tien molemmin puolin. Bautakivellä ja punaisella hiekkakivellä päällystetyt haudat ovat peräisin esiroomalaiselta rautakaudelta eKr.
Söderfjärdeniksi kutsutun alueen on muovannut paikalle n. Törmäyspaikalle muodostui suuri kraatteri, joka täyttyi lukuisten jääkausien aikana muodostaen paikalle viljelysalueen.
Söderfjärdenin kuivatushankkeen avulla luvulla sekä Grynnanin ojituksen ja Sulvan joensuun vallitusten ansiosta sulvalaiset maanviljelijät saivat lisää viljelykelpoista maata.
Maatilat olivat aiemmin melko pitkälle omavaraisia ja esim. Timotein viljely oli ja luvulla merkittävä tulonlähde. Myöhemmin timotein lisäksi alettiin viljellä myös sokerijuurikasta.
Nykyisin Sulvan maanviljely on pääasiassa kasvinviljelyä. Brunnsborrning var en annan verksamhet som blomstrade och som mest fanns det 11 brunnsborrningsmaskiner i Solf.
Under och talet hade Solf ett tiotal lanthandlar. Vägnätet utvecklades och flera bussbolag har skött persontrafiken in till Vasa.
Tidigare, fram till talet, gick landsvägen in till Vasa över Toby stenbro. Föreningslivet fick ett uppsving efter kriget och i Jockes brev, som har getts ut i bokform, kan man läsa om stora bröllop, fester och stämmor.
Det hölls föredrag, gavs teaterföreställningar och det sjöngs och spelades mycket. Inflyttningen, som varit stor, ser ut att fortsätta.
Sulvan ensimmäiset kunnanvaltuustovaalit toimitettiin Valtuuston ensimmäisenä puheenjohtajana toimi Edvard Helenelund, josta tuli sittemmin myös kansanedustaja.
Talvi- ja jatkosodan aikana aika ja voimavarat menivät pitkälti selviämiseen vaikeiden aikojen yli. Rauhan jälkeen Sulvalla vallitsi talkoohenki, joka mahdollisti uuden alun.
Rappeutuneet talot kunnostettiin ja maalattiin useissa kylän maatiloissa keitetyllä punamullalla. Taloustilanteen kohentuessa myös talojen sisätilat saatettiin kunnostaa ja varustaa keskuslämmityksen ja WC:n kaltaisilla nykyaikaisilla teknisillä ratkaisuilla.
Maastamuutto Ruotsiin oli sodanjälkeisen suuren työttömyyden takia merkittävää, erityisesti nuorison keskuudessa.
Tänä aikana perustettiin useita pienyrityksiä, mm. Kaivojen poraus oli toinen menestyvä teollisuudenala ja Sulvalla sijaitsi peräti 11 kaivonporauskonetta.
Muut sodanjälkeisenä aikoina perustetut yritykset olivat pieniä työpajoja, sahoja, puusepän verstaita, yksi ompelimo ja jopa nappitehdas. So this means we have to change our pop music lessons, at least every few years, so that they remain relevant.
Then, of course, there is the issue of appropriateness. SO many pop songs are just not appropriate. Maybe kids don't realize the true meaning of the song—as was so often the case with music I listened to growing up—but still, there are songs we just can't do, no matter how much the kids love them.
After considering the reasons why I wanted to include pop music more, and why creating lessons using pop music is tricky, I have come up with a few ideas over the last couple of years that have worked for me and my students.
I am truly at the beginning of this journey, so will blog more as more ideas come to me! Here are a few ideas to get started on your journey:.
Then when you change to a different motion, they do too! Halfway through the song, you could have student volunteers lead the beat!
This works even better if the students have done this same activity with Beethoven or Brahms or Miles Davis…they they try it with pop music!
I have recently found a couple songs with Orff accompaniment on Pinterest. Here are arrangements to check out:.
I had each kid pair up on a barred instrument with a friend, wrote the first measure on the board with rhythm and note letters, and had them figure out how to play it!
So fun! After lamenting to myself about how many songs I just couldn't use because of appropriateness, I started listening to music by my friend Lessia at I am Bullyproof Music…and I had a big a-ha moment, that I should be using her music to help make connections!
Whether she's writing and singing about fighting self-doubt, or stopping to enjoy the present, Lessia's lyrics are very meaningful…and her music is super catchy!
My fourth graders even begged to play Musical Chairs with Einstein on their reward day! You can see more of each set below:. I have to give a big thank you to my friends Donna Gallo , Frank Gallo , and Lessia Bonn , who were huge influences in opening up my eyes on why and how to use pop music in my classroom.
I'd love to hear your thoughts! What are your favorite songs to use, and why?Jotkut olivat sitä mieltä että kerrostalo sopisi keskustaan, kun toiset Rauhan jälkeen Sulvalla vallitsi talkoohenki, joka mahdollisti uuden alun. Uddrag af Ingeborg Thomsen erindringer fra Tämän jälkeen alueelle on kaavoitettu ja rakennettu useampia asuinalueita. Go Pparship.